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Here is a recent update on the Asian Longhorned Beetle in Bethel Ohio.  Although there is a delay in the report from the USDA that would give home owners options to pursue, perhaps including treatment of healthy trees, there is no delay on the USDA’s removal of infested and host trees.

And what is a host tree?  It is simply a tree that the Asian Longhorned Beetle can feed on.  And from the chart in a previous post, one can see that there are a lot of trees that it chooses.  That means that almost all trees in the greater Bethel area are tagets for removal, even if they are currently healthy.

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Here is a great video showing how tree injection works for Emerald Ash Borer, and also Asian Longhorned Beetle.  Although the US Department of Agriculture has not approved the protection of trees in Bethel, Ohio, it has approved this method in other parts of the country such as Wooster, MA.

 

As of November 2011, this is the most current and comprehensive information that I have found on host trees for Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB).  It’s created by Alan Sawyer, USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Otis Plant Protection Laboratory, Revised Feb , 2010
Click on Genus for more information (link will open in new browser window)

Category1 Genus2 Common Name Host Abundance 
and other notes3
Treated Surveyed4

Very good hosts

Acer Maple, boxelder Very common trees. Many US records, all species: Norway, red, silver, sugar, sycamore maple and boxelder especially favored; Amur maple less favored; Japanese maple seldom attacked. Yes
Aesculus Horsechestnut, buckeye Fairly common trees. Several US records, some heavily infested. Yes
Salix Willow Fairly common trees. Several US records: weeping, pussy and white willows highly favored; black willow (oviposition only) less favored. Yes
Ulmus Elm Very common trees. Many US records: American, Siberian and Chinese elms. Elms are apparently less preferred than maple. Yes

Good hosts

Betula Birch Fairly common trees. Several US records: gray, European white and river birches. Some gray birches with many exits. Birches are apparently less preferred than maple. Yes
Plane tree, sycamore
Common
Yes

Occasional hosts

Alizia Mimosa, silk tree Occasional ornamental. Exit holes: 2 records from field in NY with additional emergence in laboratory. No Chinese record Yes
Katsura tree,
C. japonicum
Occasional ornamental. Four records from Worcester, MA,including 2 trees with exit holes
Yes
Celtis HackberryCeltis occidentalis Fairly common tree. Oviposition: 1 unverified record from IL, with small/medium-sized larva identified as ALB. No Chinese record. Yes
Fraxinus

Ash

(especially green
ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica)

Very common tree, but injury infrequent relative to host abundance. Several US records, all from IL, most of these unverified (but at least two exit holes confirmed). Host in Chinese literature. Exit hole in green ash in Chinese field test. Yes
Populus Poplar(excluding cottonwood) Fairly common trees. Diverse group. Suitability apparently varies; some species and hybrids are prime hosts in China. Just 7 US records (NY, NJ), including balsam popular, P. balsamifera,
Balm-of-Gilead (a hybrid cultivar), eastern cottonwood, P. deltoides, quaking aspen, P. tremuloides and unidentified Populus sp. Exit hole on quaking aspen, adults reared in lab from
field-collected cottonwood.
Yes
Sorbus Mountain-ash Occasional ornamental. Exit hole: 1 record from field in IL with additional emergence in laboratory. No Chinese record. Note: this is not a true ash; Sorbus is a member of the rose family. Yes

Questionable hosts

Hibiscus Rose-of-Sharon, H. syriacus Common ornamental shrub. Exit: 1 unverified report, NY; Oviposition: several records, NY, but no larval development, possibly incidental to heavy damage on nearby hosts. No
Chinese record.
No
Malus Apple, crab apple Common ornamental. Oviposition: 1 uestionable record, IL Host in Chinese literature. Oviposition observed in China. No
Morus Mulberry Very common tree. Oviposition: 1 record, NY. No Chinese record. No
Prunus Cherry, plum Very common ornamental. Oviposition: 2 records, NY & IL, but
no survival. Host in Chinese literature.
No
Pyrus Pear Common ornamental. Exit: 1 questionable record, IL. Host in Chinese literature. No
Quercus Oak Very common tree. Oviposition: 1 record, NY (incidental to heavy damage on nearby hosts). No Chinese record. No
Robinia Black Locust Common tree. Exit: 2 doubtful records, IL. Host in Chinese literature. Egg sites observed in China. No
Tilia Linden, Basswood Common tree. Oviposition: 2 records (IL & NY) but no survival. Host in Chinese literature. No

No U.S. Record5

Alnus Alder Locally common tree or shrub. No US record. Host in Chinese literature. Exit hole observed in gray alder, A. incana, in cage study in China. No
Silverberry, Russian Olive
Widely-planted ornamental shrub. No US cord. Host in Chinese literature; Heavy feeding damage and exit hole observed in China.
No
Goldenraintree, K. paniculata
Occasional ornamental. No US record. Heavy feeding,
oviposition sites and 2 exit holes observed in cage study in China.
No
Melia Chinaberry
Uncommon shrub. No US record; reported not to be a host in Chinese literature but damage observed.
No
Reported not to be hosts Ailanthus Tree of heaven Common tree. No US record; reported not to be a host in Chinese literature. No

1 Host status based on US records of infestation, field studies with North American trees planted in China and Chinese literature. Host range tests in laboratory and greenhouse settings not considered except as noted. See Hu et al. (2009) for a review of hosts with particular emphasis on the status of poplars in China.

Host genera listed alphabetically within catagories.

Host abundance based on program records , general oversvations of infested areas in NY and IL, and on Nowack, D.J., 1994. “Urban Forest Structure: the State of Chicago’s Urban Forest.” pp 3-18 In: E.G. McPherson et al., Chicago’s Urban Forest Ecosystem: Results of the Chicago Forest Climate Project. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-186, USDA Forest Service, Northeast Forest Experiment Sta., Radnor, PA.

4 Included in surveys and chemical treatments by USDA Cooperative ALB Eradication Program in IL, NY and NJ.

Trees with no US record are reported to be hosts in china but have not been attacked in the US at this point References Hu, J., S. Angeli, S. Schuetz, Y. Luo and A. E. Hajek. 2009. Ecology and management of exotic and endemic Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis. Agric. For. Entomol. 11: 359-375. Nowack, D. J., 1994, “Urban Forest Structure: The State of Chicago’s Urban Forest,” pp. 3-18 In: E. G. McPherson et al., Chicago’s Urban Forest Ecosystem: Results of the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-186, USDA Forest Service, NE Forest Experiment Sta., Radnor, PA

Source: University of Vermont

This is a question that our salespeople and technicians get asked quite often.

The quick answer is Yes, but only if tree injection is used.  As can be read in other posts such as Our process to protect valuable ash trees  the method that we use keeps the formulation within the system of the tree.  The formulation is injected into the tree trunk via small plugs, which act as one-way valves, and it stays in the tree.  The formulation that we use for Asian Longhorned Beetle is imidacloprid.

Other systems such as soil drenching, put pesticides into the environment.  In a letter to the USDA, concerned citizens in Pesticide Action Network North America, Toxics Action Network and The SafeLawns Foundation, stated the  following.

“…we believe direct soil applications of imidacloprid presents the vast potential for too many unintended consequences. Among imidacloprid’s known deleterious impacts are known to be:
a) Toxicity to birds, fish, crustaceans, earthworms and most especially honeybees, which are essential for the pollination of vast amounts of the world’s food;
b) Potential for migration into water. Imidacloprid can persist in soil for 26.5 to 229 days in soil and has been detected in both ground and surface water in New York. California put imidacloprid on its groundwater protection list due to its potential to contaminate groundwater;
c) Potential impacts to humans. Imidacloprid has been linked in animal studies to reproductive, mutagenic and neurotoxic effects.
d) Several nations, including France and Germany, have banned soil-based applications of imidacloprid due to its aforementioned toxicity issues.”

Although the article is specifically about the Asian Longhorned Beetle, the same process and pesticide is used by some companies for Emerald Ash Borer.  Therefore it is important to ask any company that may treat your trees for Asian Longhorned Beetle, what is the method they use.

The complete letter, and associated article, can be read on the following link…

Government Considers Soil Drenching of Pesticides in Boston

Identifying any new infestation can be tough.  We may have heard a lot in the media about the Asian Longhorned Beetle a couple of months ago, but how do I know one if I see one?  And if I see one, how do I report it, and to whom?

The attached pdf gives a great description of how to identify teh Asian Longhorned Beetle, and what you can do about it.

ALB-Beetle-Detectives-fact-sheet

The area that is quarantined for Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB), is east of Cincinnati. ALB Quarantine Map as of June 30, 2011

Click on picture to enlarge.

 Even though the ALB can fly, the biggest threat to the Greater Cincinnati area comes through the transporting of firewood.  Governor Kasich issued an Executive Order making it illegal to move any logs, firewood, stumps, roots or branches out of this area.

Unlike the Emerald Ash Borer, which feeds only on ash trees, the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) grows and lays its eggs in a wide variety of deciduous, hardwood trees.

Here are some of the common host trees for the Asian Longhorned Beetle.

ALB Host Trees Genus
  • Ash
  • Fraxinus
  • Birches
  • Betula
  • Buckeye
  • Aesculus
  • Elm
  • Ulmus
  • European mountain ash
  • Sorbus
  • Hackberry
  • Celtis
  • Horsechestnut
  • Aesculus
  • Katsura
  • Cercidiphyllum
  • Londonplanetree
  • Platanus
  • Maple
  • Acer
  • Mimosa
  • Mimosa
  • Poplars
  • Populus
  • Willow
  • Salix

As can be seen there are quite a few.  One interesting point is that OAK trees are not on the list.  As I travel the Greater Cincinnati and Dayton areas, I see a lot of mature oak trees, and it’s comforting to know that this latest destructive pest does not prey on them.

If you are not sure what species your trees are, this website will help you to identify your trees.

US Forestry Department